### TL;DR The **Bradford Hill Criteria** are a group of 9 princi...
### Austin Bradford Hill Sir Austin Bradford Hill was an English...
In what circumstances can one infer causation from an observed asso...
> *"How in the first place do we detect these relationships between...
The first criterion for causation is **strength**. The larger an as...
The second criterion is **consistency**. Consistency is upheld when...
The third criterion is **specificity**. Associations are more likel...
The fourth criterion is **temporality**. The exposure must precede ...
The seventh criterion is **coherence**. This criterion is similar t...
The fifth criterion is **biological gradient**. When increased expo...
The sixth criterion is **plausibility**. Plausibility is satisfied ...
The eight criterion is **experiment**. When experimental manipulati...
The ninth (and final) criterion is **analogy**. When there is stron...
Bradford Hill’s **nine criteria are not intended to be viewed as ri...
Section
of
Occupational
Medicine
The
Environment
and
Disease:
Association
or
Causation?
by
Sir
Austin
Bradford
Hill
CBE
DSC
FRCP(hOn)
FRS
(Professor
Emeritus
of
Medical
Statistics,
University
of
London)
Amongst
the
objects
of
this
newly-founded
Section
of
Occupational
Medicine
are
firstly
'to
provide
a
means,
not
readily
afforded
elsewhere,
whereby
physicians
and
surgeons
with
a
special
knowledge
of
the
relationship
between
sickness
and
injury
and
conditions
of
work
may
discuss
their
prob-
lems,
not
only
with
each
other,
but
also
with
colleagues
in
other
fields,
by
holding
joint
meet-
ings
with
other
Sections
of
the
Society';
and,
secondly,
'to
make
available
information
about
the
physical,
chemical
and
psychological
hazards
of
occupation,
and
in
particular
about
those
that
are
rare
or
not
easily
recognized'.
At
this
first
meeting
of
the
Section
and
before,
with
however
laudable
intentions,
we
set
about
instructing
our
colleagues
in
other
fields,
it
will
be
proper
to
consider
a
problem
fundamental
to
our
own.
How
in
the
first
place