Journal
of
Personality
and
Social Psychology
1969,
Vol.
13. No. 2,
83-92
SOCIAL ENHANCEMENT
AND
IMPAIRMENT
OF
PERFORMANCE
IN THE
COCKROACH
1
ROBERT
B.
ZAJONC,
2
ALEXANDER
HEINGARTNER,
AND
EDWARD
M.
HERMAN
8
Institute
for
Social
Research,
University
of
Michigan
Maze
and
runway performance
of
cockroaches
was
observed under solitary
and
social conditions
in an
attempt
to
test
the
drive theory
of
social facilita-
tion.
In
Experiment
I
cockroaches were observed under
two
types
of
social
treatments,
coaction
and
audience.
In
both treatments maze performance
was
impaired while runway performance
was
facilitated when compared
to
per-
formance
of
subjects
in
solitary conditions.
In
Experiment
II the
effects
of
reduced
presence
of