Creative Task 3. This meant that by Creative Task 3,
two creative tasks had intervened since the boring task
and this might have negated the effects of the boring
task. It would be useful in future studies to precede eac h
place, namely a church. Although the relationship
between religiosity and creativity has rarely been
explored in the literature, links between them have been
theoretically proposed (Zysberg & Schenck, 2013), so
future research could ensure greater external validity
by ensuring a wider mix of participants.
Alfredsson, L., Karasek, R., & Theorell, T. (1982). Myocardial
infraction risk and psychosocial work environment: An analysis
of the male Swedish workforce. Social Science Medicine, 16,
Andrade, J. (2010). What does doodling do? Applied Cognitive
Psychology, 24(1), 100–106.
Begley, S., Bailey, H., Sone, D., & Interlandi, J. (2009). Will the
BlackBerry sink the presidency? Newsweek, 153(7), 36–39.
Bell, G. (2011). The value of boredom. TEDxSydney Conference. Ret-
rieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ps_YUElM2EQ
Branton, P. (1970). A ﬁeld study of repetitive manual work in relation
to accidents in the workplace. International Journal of Production
Research, 8 , 93–107.
Brisset, D., & Snow, R. P. (1993). Boredom: Where the future isn’t.
Symbolic Interaction, 16, 237–256.
Caplan, R. D., Cobb, S., French, J. R. P., van Harrison, R., &
Pinneau, S. R. (1975). Job demands and worker health. Washington,
DC: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
Cox, T. (1980). Repetitive work. In C. L. Cooper & R. Payne (Eds.),
Current concerns in occupational stress (pp. 23–41). Chichester,
UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Dehlinger, R. (1975). The yawning student. In F. Goetzel (Ed.),
Boredom: Root of discontent and aggression (pp. 44–54). Berkely,
CA: Grizzly Peak Press.
Drory, A. (1982). Individual differences in boredom proneness and
task effectiveness at work. Personnel Psychology, 35, 141–151.
Farmer, R., & Sundberg, N. D. (1986). Boredom proneness: The
development and correlates of a new scale. Journal of Personality
Assessment, 50 (1), 4–17.
Fisher, C. D. (1993). Boredom at work: A neglected concept. Human
Relations, 46(3), 395–417.
Furnham, A., Crump, J., Batey, M., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2009).
Personality and ability predictors of the ‘consequences’ test of
divergent thinking in a large non-student sample. Personality and
Individual Differences, 46, 536–540.
Gaylin, W. (1979). Feeling bored. In W. Gaylin (Ed.), Feelings: Our
vital signs (pp. 113–129). New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Grabe, M. (2005). Voluntary use of online lecture notes: Correlates
of note use and note use as an alternative to class attendance.
Computers and Education, 44, 409–421.
Grose, V. L. (1989). Coping with boredom in the cockpit before it’s
too late. Professional Safety, 34(7), 24–26.
Hamilton, J. (1983). Development of interest and enjoyment in
adolescence. Part 11. Boredom and psychopathology. Journal of
Youth and Adolescence, 12, 363–372.
Handelsman, M. M., Briggs, W. L., Sullivan, N., & Towler, A. (2005).
A measure of college student course engagement. Journal of
Educational Research, 98 (3), 184–191.
Harris, M. B. (2000). Correlates and characteristics of boredom
proneness and boredom. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30 ,
Hoover, M. (1986). Extreme individualisation, false subjectivity and
boredom. Virginia Journal of Sociology, 2, 35–51.
Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. (1987). Positive affect
facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 52(6), 112–1131.
Klapp, O. (1986). Overload and boredom. New York, NY: Greenwood
Klinger, E. (1987). Imagery and logotherapeutic techniques in
psychotherapy. In W. M. Cox (Ed.), Treatment and prevention of
alcohol problems: A resource manual (pp. 139–156). New York,
NY: Academic Press.
Larson, R. W., & Richards, M. H. (1991). Daily companionship in late
childhood and early adolescence: Changing developmental contexts.
Child Development, 62, 284–300.
Mann, S., & Robinson, A. (2009). Boredom in the lecture theatre: An
investigation into the contributors, moderators and outcomes of
boredom amongst university students. British Educational Research
Journal, 35(2), 243–258.
Maroldo, G. K. (1986). Shyness, boredom, and grade point
average among college students. Psychological Reports, 59,
Martin, M., Sadlo, G., & Stew, G. (2006). The phenomenon of
boredom. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 193–211.
Mikulas, W. L., & Vodanovich, S. J. (1993). The essence of boredom.
Psychological Record, 43(1), 3–12.
O’Hanlon, J. F. (1981). Boredom: Practical consequences and a theory.
Acta Psychologica, 49, 53–82.
Plucker, J. A. and Renzulli, J. S. (1999). Psychometric approaches to
the Study of Human Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.) Handbook
of Creativity, pp. 35–62. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Runco, M. A., & Smith, W. R. (1992). Interpersonal and intrapersonal
evaluations of creative ideas. Personality and Individual Differences,
Schank, R. C. (1982). Dynamic memory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
Schank, R. C. (1999). Dynamic memory revisited. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Scott, M., & Lyman, S. (1968). Accounts. American Sociological
Review, 31, 46–62.
Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Willse, J. T., Barona, C. M., Cram,
J. T., Hess, K. I., ... Richard, C. A. (2008). Assessing creativity with
divergent thinking tasks: Exploring the reliability and validity of
new subject scoring methods. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity
and the Arts, 2(2), 68–85.
Singer, J. L. (1975). The inner world of daydreaming. New York, NY:
Harper & Row.
Singer, J. L. (1981). Towards the scientiﬁc study of imagination.
Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 1(1), 5–28.
Smallwood, J. (2011). Mind-wandering while reading: Attentional
decoupling, mindless reading and the cascade model of inattention.
Language and Linguistics Compass, 5(2), 63–77.
Smallwood, J. S., & Schooler, J. W. (2006). The restless mind.
Psychological Bulletin, 132, 946–958.
Smith, R. P. (1981). Boredom: A review. Human Factors, 23(3), 329–340.
Snyder, A., Mitchell, J., Bossamaier, T., & Pallier, G. (2004). The
creativity quotient; an objective scoring of ideational ﬂuency.
Creativity Research Journal, 16, 415–420.
Toohey, P. (2011). Boredom: A lively history. New Haven, CT: Yale
Tushup, R. J., & Zuckerman, M. (1977). The effects of stimulus
invariance on daydreaming and divergent thinking. Journal of
Mental Imagery, 1(2), 291–301.
172 MANN AND CADMAN