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19
65ApJ.
.
.142.
.419P
No.
1,
1965
LETTERS
TO
THE
EDITOR
419
high
pressure,
such
as
the
zero-mass
scalar,
capable
of
speeding
the
universe
through
the
period
of
helium
formation.
To
have
a
closed
space,
an
energy
density
of
2
X
10
-29
gm/cm
3
is
needed.
Without
a
zero-mass
scalar,
or
some
other
“hard”
interaction,
the
energy
could
not
be
in
the
form
of
ordinary
matter
and
may
be
presumed
to
be
gravita-
tional
radiation
(Wheeler
1958).
One
other
possibility
for
closing
the
universe,
with
matter
providing
the
energy
con-
tent
of
the
universe,
is
the
assumption
that
the
universe
contains
a
net
electron-type
neutrino
abundance
(in
excess
of
antineutrinos)
greatly
larger
than
the
nucleon
abun-
dance.
In
this
case,
if
the
neutrino
abundance
were
so
great
that
these
neutrinos
are
degenerate,
the
degeneracy
would
have
forced
a
negligible
equilibrium
neutron
abun-
dance
in
the
early,
highly
contracted
universe,
thus
removing
the
possibility
of
nuclear
reactions
leading
to
helium
formation.
However,
the
required
ratio
of
lepton
to
baryon
number
must
be
>
10
9
.
We
deeply
appreciate
the
helpfulness
of
Drs.
Penzias
and
Wilson
of
the
Bell
Telephone
Laboratories,
Crawford
Hill,
Holmdel,
New
Jersey,
in
discussing
with
us
the
result
of
their
measurements
and
in
showing
us
their
receiving
system.
We
are
also
grateful
for
several
helpful
suggestions
of
Professor
J.
A.
Wheeler.
R.
H.
Dicke
P.
J.
E.
Peebles
P.
G.
Roll
D.
T.
Wilkinson
May
7,
1965
Palmer
Physical
Laboratory
Princeton,
New
Jersey
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A
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1962,
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1143.
A
MEASUREMENT
OF
EXCESS
ANTENNA
TEMPERATURE
AT
4080
Mc/s
Measurements
of
the
effective
zenith
noise
temperature
of
the
20-foot
horn-reflector
antenna
(Crawford,
Hogg,
and
Hunt
1961)
at
the
Crawford
Hill
Laboratory,
Holmdel,
New
Jersey,
at
4080
Mc/s
have
yielded
a
value
about
3.5°
K
higher
than
expected.
This
excess
temperature
is,
within
the
limits
of
our
observations,
isotropic,
unpolarized,
and
©
American
Astronomical
Society
Provided
by
the
NASA
Astrophysics
Data
System